Monday, October 31, 2011

arg blarg

Tuesday, September 27, 2011

Java Platform part 1

Java Platform

So, Java has a long and difficult history of development, but it is time to consider what happened with the creators of what properties the technology.

The most widely known, and at the same time causing the most heated debates, the property - multi-or cross-platform. I have already mentioned that it is achieved by using a virtual machine JVM, which is simply the program, performed by the operating system and provides a Java-applications, all the necessary features. Since all parameters are specified JVM, it remains the only task - to implement virtual machines on all existing platforms and used.

The presence of the virtual machine determines many properties of Java, but now focus on the following question - is the Java language compiled or interpreted? In fact, both approaches are used.

The source code of any Java program is a text file that can be created in any text editor or a specialized tool, and have the extension. Java. These files are input Java-compiler, which translates them into a special Java byte code. It is this compact and efficient instruction set supported by the JVM, and is an integral part of the platform Java.

The result of the compiler is saved in binary files with the extension. Class. Java-based application consisting of these files, is input to a virtual machine, which begins to execute, or interpret, since she is the program.

Many developers initially vilified bold slogan Sun "Write once, run everywhere", revealing more and more gaps and inconsistencies across different platforms.However, it must be admitted that they were just too impatient. Java was in its infancy, and the first version of the specifications were not exhaustive.

Monday, September 12, 2011

Network computers part 2

More JVM discussed below, but it must be said that the developers in Sun made an effort to make this machine a very real and not just virtual. May 29, 1996 declared the operating system Java OS (the final version released in March next year). According to a press release, it was "probably the smallest and fastest operating system that supports Java". Indeed, developers have sought to ensure the ability to execute Java-based applications to the broadest range of devices - network computers, handheld computers (PDA), printers, gaming consoles, mobile phones, etc. It was expected that the Java OS will be implemented on all hardware platforms. It was necessary for the original purpose of the creators of Java - ease of adding new functionality and compatibility of all electrical appliances used by the modern consumer.

It was the first step, promoter of the Java platform down one level - the level of operating systems. Supposed to take the next step - to create a hardware architecture, the CPU, which would be directly performed without any manual Java virtual machine. A device with such a realization would be a full-fledged Java-device.

In addition to household appliances, Sun has positioned this decision and for the computer industry - networked computers have been replaced by diverse platform of personal workstations. This approach fits well into the basic concept of Sun, expressed in the motto "The Network - a computer." The possibilities of a computer will never be compared with the possibilities of a network linking all the resources of the company, and even more - around the world. Perhaps today it is obvious, but in times when the WWW is not entangled planet, the idea was revolutionary.

If, however, to build multi-functional network, to its workstations are presented very different requirements - they should not be a particularly powerful computing tasks can be shifted to servers. This is even more advantageous as it allows to centralize support and software updates, and does not force employees to be tied to their jobs. Simply log in from any terminal network login - and you can continue from the point at which it was abandoned. This can be done in the study hall for presentations, cafe, chair plane home - anywhere!

Besides the obvious convenience, this initiative was enthusiastically supported by the industry and the fact that it was a powerful weapon in the fight against the largest software vendor - Microsoft. Then (and now) was the most common platform for the Windows operating system for processor-based Intel (with someone else's hands now many easy-called Wintel). These companies have managed to create a vicious cycle that ensures success - all of them used the platform as it is written under most programs, which, in turn, forced the developers to create new products for this platform Wintel. Because Microsoft is always very aggressively expand their advantage in the personal computer (remember, like Netscape Navigator hopelessly lost competition MS Internet Explorer), this could not cause great concern other members of the computer industry. It is clear that the concept of networked computers would negate the benefits in case of Wintel widespread. The developers have simply ceased to wonder what is inside their workstation, as well as home users have no idea on what chips assembled their mobile phone or a VCR.

We have already talked about how and why Microsoft has licensed Java, although it would seem that this step only contributed to the spread of a dangerous new technology, because Internet Explorer is gaining in popularity. However, it soon broke judicial scandal. September 30, 1997 was a new IE 4.0, but already October 7 Sun announced that this product does not pass tests for compliance with the specification of virtual machines. Sun November 18 appeals to the court to prohibit the use of the logo "compatible with Java" ("Java compatible") for MS IE 4.0. It turned out that Microsoft has a slightly "improved" the language of Java, adding a few new keywords, and libraries.Not that it was super-expanding, but very attractive to a significant part of the developers start to use it. Fortunately, Sun quickly realized the gravity of such a step. Java might lose the title of a universal platform for which the faithful famous slogan "Write once, run everywhere" ("Written once, run everywhere"). In this case, it would lose the basis of his success, becoming just "another language".

Sun's managed to defend its technology. March 24, 1998 the court agreed with the requirements of the company (of course it was only a preliminary decision, the case ended with a January 23, 2001 - Sun received compensation of $ 20 million and has made the implementation of the license agreement), and already May 12 Sun reappears, demanding to oblige Microsoft to include a full version of Java for Windows 98 and other software products. This litigation is still ongoing, with varying success sides. For example, Microsoft has excluded from the virtual machine library Internet Explorer java.rmi, allowing you to create distributed applications in an attempt to attract the attention of developers to DCOM-technology platform is tied to Win32. In response, many companies began to distribute a special supplement (patch), eliminates this drawback. As a result, Microsoft has stopped its support for Java 1.1, which is currently outdated and has many useful features. This, in turn, effectively ending the widespread applets, except a very simple functionality (such as scrolling text or dialogue with several input fields and buttons), or applications for internal networks of corporations. For the latter case Sun has released a special product Java Plug-in, which integrates into MS IE and NN, allowing them to execute Java-based applet of the latest versions, and full compliance with specifications is guaranteed (the original product called Java Activator, and was first announced December 10, 1997 .) At the moment, Microsoft is included, it excludes from its Java operating system, Windows XP, apparently trying to find the most advantageous variant.

As far as network computers and Java OS, then, alas, they have not yet found their customers. Apparently, the usual personal workstations in conjunction with the JVM requires much less technical and marketing efforts and at the same time quite successfully cope with applied problems. And Java, in turn, was positioned to create sophisticated server applications.

Thursday, September 8, 2011

Network computers part 1

When it became clear that the new technology enjoyed unprecedented demand, the developers wanted to consolidate and build on the success and prevalence of Java. To Java does not share the fate of NeWS (This window system is mentioned in the beginning of the lecture, she did not develop, losing X Window), Sun has tried to cooperate with independent firms to produce a variety of libraries, developer tools, tools. January 9, 1996 was formed a new division JavaSoft, which was engaged in and develop new Java-technologies and promote them to market. The main objective - the emergence of an increasing number of different applications that are written on this platform. For example, July 1, 1997, it was announced that scientists NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the U.S. government organization dealing with space exploration) with the Java-applet control robot, studying the surface of Mars ("Java help make history!").

It's time to dwell on why Java in relation to the term "platform" rather than Java is different from conventional programming language.

Typically, the platform is called a combination of hardware architecture ("iron"), which is determined by the type of processor used (Intel x86, Sun SPARC, PowerPC, etc.), with an operating system (MS Windows, Sun Solaris, Linux, Mac OS, etc.) . When writing software developer always use the means of the target platform for network access, support for threads of execution, the graphical user interface (GUI) and other features.Of course, different platforms, because of technical, historical and other reasons, support different interfaces (API, Application Programming Interface), and hence the program can be executed only by a platform under which it was written.

Often, however, customers want the same functionality, but they use different platforms.The task of porting applications to the developers is a long time. Rarely can not transfer a complex program without substantial alteration, very often different platforms in different ways is supported by many features (eg, operating system, Mac OS traditionally uses one-button mouse, while Windows was originally designed for a two-button).

This means that the programming languages ​​should be initially focused on any particular platform. The syntax and basic concepts can easily be extended to any system (although this is not always effective), but libraries, compiler, and, of course, the binary executable code specific to each platform. So it was from the beginning era of computing, but because only a few really successful programs maintained on multiple systems, which led to the isolation of some of the worlds of software for different operating systems.

It would be strange if the development of the computer industry, developers have not tried to create a universal platform which can work under all programs. Especially such a move would boost the development of the global network Internet, which brings together users, regardless of the type of processors and operating systems. That is why the founders conceived to develop Java is not just another programming language, a universal platform for application execution, especially since originally created for OaK various household appliances from which to wait for compatibility is not necessary.

How is it possible to "smooth" differences and diversity of operating systems? The method is not new, but effective - using a virtual machine. Java applications are executed in a special, universal medium, which is called the Java Virtual Machine. JVM - a program that is written specifically for each platform, the real, on the one hand, to hide all its features, but on the other - to provide a common runtime environment for Java-based applications. Firm Sun and its partners have created a JVM for virtually all modern operating systems. When it comes to a browser that supports Java, means that it has built a virtual machine.

Monday, September 5, 2011

Browsers - part 2

Now we can look back and assess the impact of events. It is now clear that Microsoft has succeeded in his plan. If Netscape Navigator 3.x still maintains its leading position, Netscape 4.x has already begun to give Internet Explorer 4.x. NN 5.x version did not come out, and NN 6.x was another disappointment for former fans of "Navigator". There is now version 7.0, but it does not take significant market share, while Internet Explorer 5.0, 5.5 and 6.0 are used for more than 95% of users.

It's funny that many bitterly accused Microsoft that the company was struggling with Netscape "non-market" means. However, compare the actions of competitors. Among the many steps taken by Microsoft, was an independent organization and support of W3C, which is developing the new standard of HTML 3. Initially the company was considered a Netscape engine industry, because it is constantly developed and modernized the HTML, which initially do not really intended for the graphic design of the text. But Microsoft, having invested a large amount of money and human resources, was able to adopt standards that are different from those already implemented in Netscape Navigator, and the differences were sometimes purely formal. The result was that the pages are created in accordance with the W3C-specifications is displayed in the Navigator distorted. It is also important that the NN had to download (even free) and install manually, and IE has quickly become an integrated component of Windows, ready to use (and from which, incidentally, can not get rid of it in principle.)

And how Netscape was able to achieve a leading position? At one time, by similar methods the company tried (successfully, finally) drive out of the market NCSA Mosaic.Then the HTML was not particularly rich in interesting features, but because of innovation, supported by Navigator, immediately attracted the attention of developers and users. However, these pages are displayed incorrectly in Mosaic, which made him think about moving users to the products of Netscape.

As a result, due to the disregard of Netscape Navigator and many have sighed with relief. Although, of course, the loss of competition in the market and the accession of such a dangerous monopolist like Microsoft, never is good for end users, but many are tired of the "standards war", when the already-poor features of HTML have to subtly adjust so that the pages look the same in both browsers.

About HotJava, unfortunately, to say nothing special. For some time Sun has supported the product and added the ability to visually generate web-pages without knowledge of HTML. However, a competitive browser was unable to develop and soon HotJava was stopped. It is still possible to download and view the latest version 3.0.

And the last thing is to stop - the language of Java Script, which is also quite common and that many still associate with Java, probably because of the similarity of names. However, some features in common they really are.

December 4, 1995 by Netscape and Sun jointly announced a new "scripting language" (scripting language) Java Script. As can be seen from the press release, is an open cross-platform object scripting language designed for corporate networks and the Internet. Java Script code is described directly in HTML-text (although you can load it and of the individual files with the extension. Js). This language is designed to create applications that connect objects and resources on the client or the server. Thus, Java Script, on the one hand, extends and complements HTML, but on the other hand - complements Java. With the help of Java applets are written in objects that can be controlled through a scripting language.

General properties of Java Script and Java:

  1. easy to learn. At this parameter Java Script is compared with Visual Basic - to use these languages, programming experience is required; 
  2. cross-platform. Java Script code executed by your browser. The implication is that browsers on different platforms should provide the same functionality for pages that use scripting language. However, this is done at about the same extent as the support of the HTML, - the differences are still very much; 
  3. openness; language specification is open for discussion and community development; 
  4. All these properties suggest that Java Script is well-suited for Internet-programming; 
  5. language syntax Java Script and Java are very similar. However, they are also quite similar to the C language; 
  6. Java Script language is not object-oriented (although some aspects of object-oriented approach supported), but allows the use of various facilities provided by the browser; 
  7. a similar story of the emergence and development. Both languages ​​have been announced by Sun and Netscape with an interval of several months. Released shortly after Netscape Navigator 2.0 supports both the new technology. Perhaps the name was given Java Script in order to take advantage of popular Java, or in order to further expand the concept of "platform Java". It is likely that most of the work on the development of the language had just Netscape. 

Despite the large number of similar characteristics, Java and Java Script - completely different languages, and above all - on purpose. If Java was originally intended as a language for creating Internet-applications (applets), but now it is clear that Java - is a full-fledged programming language. As for the Java Script, it lives up to its name scripting language, while remaining an extension of HTML. However, the expansion of quite powerful, as lovers of this technology, manage to create quite serious applications such as 3D-games from first person (in a very simplified mode, naturally), although it is rather a case of the field of curiosities.

In conclusion, we note that the code is Java Script, running on the client, is available to all in the clear, which makes copyright protection. On the other hand, due to lack of full support for new types of ad programs with complex functionality are often too complicated to take advantage of others.

Sunday, September 4, 2011

Browsers - part 1

Of course, the main line of development has remained associated with browsers.Although the Internet was just beginning to be filled with all new technologies have already had problems of compatibility. Under different platforms to work with different browsers so that differed even fonts. As a result, the author could create a nice neat page which the customer spreads.

With the Java web-page can be filled with not only plain text, but dynamic elements - such as simple cinematics rotating globe or Duke, waving a hand (although it is good at solving problems such animated GIF, and in more complex cases - Macromedia Flash); interactive elements such as a rotating model of the chemical molecule, running lines, containing, for example, stock indices or weather forecast.

But in fact, Java - is more than decoration HTML. As a full-fledged programming language, it can be used to create complex user interface. In the first version of Java Development Kit (development tool for Java) was an example of an applet, which is simple spreadsheets. Soon came a text editor to change the style and color. Of course there were games applets, educational, physical and other modeling systems. For example, a customer who made the order at the store or send parcels by post, was able to watch the delivery via the Internet.

Unlike conventional programs, applets have "inherited" an important feature of HTML-pages. After reading the news pages today, the content, the client does not save it on your computer, and the next day read the updated content. Similarly, downloading an applet and worked with him, you can remove it, but next time get a newer version. Thus, programs come and go with the client's machine without any effort, does not require any special knowledge or action, and it automatically supports the latest versions.

On the other hand, the user is no longer tied to your main workplace, in any Internet-cafe, you can open the desired web-page and start with the usual programs. And all this without any fear of becoming infected. Developers are very interested in their software the day after the release may see users around the world, no matter what computer, operating system and browser they use. While the browser on the client side must support Java, as mentioned, users are asked to HotJava, available on any platform. The most popular at the time the browser Netscape Navigator, version 2.0 also supports Java. But today, as we know, the most popular browser - Microsoft Internet Explorer.

The company Microsoft, having achieved stunning success in software for personal computers, was (and generally still is) the main competitor in this area for Sun, IBM, Netscape and others. If in the early nineties, the main efforts were directed to the Microsoft Windows operating system and Office applications (MS Office), then in the middle of the decade it became obvious that it's time to get serious Internet. In early 1995, Bill Gates issued a "declaration of war plans" Netscape to take a similar monopoly in the WWW, as well as in operating systems for personal computers. And as soon Netscape has signed a licensing agreement with Sun, Microsoft found itself in a difficult situation.

Internet Explorer 2.0 is not enthusiastic about and no one believed that he could make even a little competition to an appreciable Netscape Navigator. This means that a new version of IE 3.0 should be able to do everything that he could have just released NN 2.0. Therefore, December 7, 1995 Microsoft announced its intention to license Java, and in March 1996 licensing agreement was signed. The largest company producing the software had to support her, perhaps the most dangerous competitor.

Saturday, September 3, 2011

Java comes out

Finally, all the preparatory work has come to its logical conclusion. Official announcement of Java, is already widely accepted and full of promise, was going to happen at the conference SunWorld. It was expected that this will be a short news announcement, since the main purpose of this event - UNIX-systems. But all did not happen as planned.

At four o'clock in the morning on the day of the conference, after a long and difficult negotiations, Sun signed a crucial agreement. The second side - the company Netscape,founded in April 1994, James Clark (he has already played a role in the fate OaK two years ago, when intercepted a proposal from Time Warner) and Mark Andrissenom(creator of the NCSA Mosaic). This company became the leader of the browser market after in December 1994 came out the first version of Netscape Navigator, which was open to free non-commercial use, allowing to take at that time up to 75% of the market.

May 23, 1995 Java and HotJava been officially announced by Sun and at the same time the company reported that the new version of the popular browser Netscape Navigator 2.0 will support new technology. In essence, this meant that from now on Java is a integral part of the WWW, as well as HTML. For the second time the presentation ended with a standing ovation - the triumphant march of Java began.

Friday, September 2, 2011

Oak Revival

For the victorious release OaK lacked the final touch - a browser that supports this technology. It was he who had become the most "killer" application Naughton, whocompleted the preparatory work for nearly five years before the official announcement ofthe new platform.

Browser called WebRunner. Naughton took only one weekend to write the bulk of the program. That was in July and in September 1994 WebRunner already demonstratedleadership Sun. Small programs written in OaK for distribution through the Internet, called applets.

The next demonstration took place at the conference, where we met the developers of applications and Internet-entertainment industry. When Gosling began the presentation WebRunner, students showed little interest in deciding that this is just a clone of Mosaic.Then Gosling had his arm on a complex three-dimensional model of chemical molecules.
Following the mouse, a model turned in all directions! Now this function may not produce such an impression, but then it was like the transition from picture to cinema. The following sample demonstrated an animated sort. Initially represented a set of line segments of varying lengths. Then the blue and red lines started to run on this set, sorting the pieces by size. An example of too simple, but clearly demonstrates that the client appeared complete software platform. Both of these applets are now standard and examples included in the Java Development Kit version of each. The success of the demonstration, which ended with thunderous applause showed that OaK WebRunner and able to make a revolution on the Internet, since all the participants in another look at the opportunities provided by the World Wide Web.

By the way, in early 1995, when it became clear that the official announcement is not far off, it took over marketing. As a result of their research OaK was renamed to Java, and WebRunner was called HotJava. Many people wondered what was the reason for this decision. Legend has it that Java - it's sort of coffee (a coffee really is), who were very fond of programmers. Apparently, in a similar manner born, and called HotJava ("Hot Java"). Topic coffee will always be in the names and logos (the technology to create components called Java Beans - coffee beans, custom format for archiving files with Java-programs JAR - Bank of coffee, etc.), and the language of critics began to call "for Coffee" . But now everything is already used to it and not think about the title, perhaps this was intended (and those who continue to express dissatisfaction, lead alternatives that were considered then - Neon, Lyric, Pepper or Silk).

Under the plan, specification Java, HotJava, and implementation of the platform should be distributed freely over the Internet. On the one hand, it is possible to promptly disseminate the technology throughout the world and make it the de facto standard for Internet-programming. On the other hand, with the participation of the entire community of developers who have expressed a comment, you can more quickly eliminate all possible errors and omissions. However, in late 1994, only a few copies have been distributed outside Sun. In February 1995, it appears possible, the first press release indicating that soon will be available alpha OaK and WebRunner.

When this happens, the team began to count the instances of downloading their product for review. Soon, hundreds already had to consider. Then we decided that if he could reach 10,000, it will be just a stunning success. We had to wait does not last as long as you can imagine. Interest grew like an avalanche, after watching a lot of letters came and the power of Internet-channel was not enough. Your letters are always answered in great detail, which at first can be done without interrupting work. Then, one by one began to appoint a developer to it during the week just wrote the answers. Finally, it took a special officer, as has already occurred by 2-3 thousand letters a day. Soon the leadership Sun has realized that the success of such a powerful Java has no budget or plan for advertising and other promotions to market. The first step in this direction is the publication March 23, 1995 in the newspaper Sun Jose Mercury News article describing the new technology, where he gives the address of the official site, which to this day is the main source of information on Java.

Thursday, September 1, 2011

World Wide Web

Chasing the ghost of interactive television, many members of the computer market have missed a truly epoch-making event. In April 1993, Marc Andreessen and Eric Bina , working at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, NCSA at the University of Illinois released a first version of the graphical browser  Mosaic 1.0 forWWW. Although the Internet existed at that time about 20 years, the available communication protocols (FTP, telnet, etc.) to have been very uncomfortable and the Global Network was only used in academic and government environments. Mosaic is based on a new markup language hypertext documents (HyperText Markup Language, HTML), which was developed in 1991 at the European Institute of Particle Physics (CERN) specifically to provide information on the Internet. This format allows you to view text and images, and most importantly - support links by which you can navigate with one click as another part of the same page and a page that could reside in a completely different part of the network anywhere in the world. These are the cross-appeal, using which, users can unwittingly set of nodes to visit the Internet, and allowed to assume that all HTML-documents related to parts of a whole - the World Wide Web (World Wide Web, WWW).

And most important - all these new developments were completely free and available to everyone. For the first time ordinary computer users without any special training to enjoy a global network not only to address operational issues, but also to find information on various topics. The number of documents in the WWW space began to grow exponentially, and soon the Internet has become a real World. True, eventually found that this way of organizing and storing information is very similar to the dump, which is extremely difficult to find information on some specific issue, but this topic applies to a completely different stage of development of the computer world. So, in some incomprehensible way Sun does not see the birth of a new era. Technical Director, Sun first saw Mosaic, only three months later! And despite the fact that about 50% of servers and workstations on the Internet were made by Sun.

The new business plan aims to FirstPerson, which was a kind of intermediate step of interactive TV features to Internet. The idea was to create a platform for cable operators, users, which would have been ordinary users of personal computers, integrated networks of such companies. Using technology OaK, developers could create applications for functionality similar programs distributed on CD-ROM, but have the interactivity that enables people to share any information through the network. It was expected that these networks and eventually develop into interactive TV, and then becomes a full OaK solution for the industry. On the Internet, and Mosaic has not said a word.

For many reasons, this plan did not accept the leadership of Sun (it is not fully consistent with the main expectation - a new development should lead to an increase in demand for products of Sun). Because of the lack of prospects FirstPerson half of the staff was transferred to the newly created command Sun Interactive, which has continued to engage in multimedia services without the OaK. All the company was threatened inglorious death, but at this point Bill Joy once again supported the project, which soon gave the world a platform for Java.

When the creators of FirstPerson, finally, drew attention to the Internet, they realized that the functionality of the network applications that created OaK, very close to the WWW.Bill Joy remembered how he had twenty years ago was involved in the development of UNIX at Berkeley, and then the operating system was very wide spread because it can be downloaded online for free. This principle of free distribution of commercial products made itself WWW, in the same way the company soon became the leader of the Netscape browser market, so many of the technologies had the opportunity to grab market share as soon as possible. These new ideas with the support of Joy finally convinced the Sun, that the Internet will help raise the platform OaK (by the way, this new project initially called "Liveoak"). In the end, Joey sits down to write the next business plan and sends Gosling and Naughton to begin work on adapting OaK for the Internet.Gosling revising the code platform, and Naughton is taken for writing "killer" application that would be immediately demonstrated the power of OaK for the Internet.

In fact, these technologies are well come to each other. Programming Languages ​​has always played an important role in the development of computer technology.Mainframes were not particularly useful until a Cobol. With language, Fortran on IBM, computers have become widely used for scientific computing and research. Altair BASIC - is the first product from Microsoft - allowed all hobbyists to create programs for their personal computers. C + + has become the basis for the development of graphical user interfaces, such as Mac OS and Windows. Creators OaK done everything to make this technology has played a similar role in programming for the Internet.

Despite the fact that by mid-1994 WWW reached unprecedented dimensions (of course, by the standards of the time), web-pages were still more like a traditional paper publication, than for interactive applications. For the most part all the work in the network was to send a request to the web-server and receiving a reply, which contained the usual static HTML-file, the browser displayed on the client side. Even then, the functionality of web-servers extended with the help of CGI (Common Gateway Interface).This technology allows the client's request to run a normal program on the server and the result sent back in response. Since then the speed of communication channels was low (although, it seems, users will never be satisfied with the possibilities of the apparatus), the client could wait a few minutes to see a message stating that he made a mistake in one letter request. Dynamic charting with this method of implementation would be to generate the GIF-files in real time. But often the client machines are full-fledged personal computer that could take a significant part of the user experience for themselves, relieving servers.

Generally, a client-server architecture, just need for most complex corporate (enterprise) applications, has a number of technical difficulties. The basic idea - to place the general data on a server to create a single information space for many users, and programs that display and allow easy editing of these data are executed on client machines. Very often, a corporation uses multiple hardware platforms (it can be as "heritage" and a consequence of the fact that different departments, solving their problems, need a different computer). Consequently, the application needs to be developed in several versions, which greatly increases the cost of support. Also, update the client side means that you need to reconfigure every computer company in the shortest possible time. But the updates often involved several groups of developers.

Trying to make Internet-browser features a full client encounters even greater difficulties.First, the usual increase of the maximum - on the Internet are nearly all existing platforms, and the number of geographically dispersed users and makes a quick update just impossible. Second, it is particularly acute question of security. Through a network of remarkably quickly spread not only important information, but also viruses. Textual information and images do not contain any threat to the client machine, and another thing - an executable code. Finally, an application with a beautiful and convenient graphical interface, as a rule, had no small amount, that's why the primary means of dissemination were CD-ROMs. It is clear that the Internet had to work hard over a compact package.

If you look at the history of OaK, it becomes clear that this platform is an amazing meet all the requirements Internet-programming, although it was created at a time when about WWW nobody even thought of. Apparently, this indicates how well the development of industry foresight project participants Green.

Wednesday, August 31, 2011

Company FirstPerson.

Large manufacturers such as Mitsubishi Electric, France Telecom, Dolby Labs, interested in new technology, the negotiations began. Sheridan has prepared a business plan with the original title "Beyond the Green Door" ("Behind the Green Door"), in which he proposed to establish a wholly owned subsidiary Sun to promote the platform OaK on the market. November 1, 1992 the company created FirstPerson, which was headed by Wayne Rosing, passed on from Sun Labs. Rent luxury office, the number of employees increased from 14 to 60 people.

But later it turned out that the cost of such solutions (CPU, memory, screen) is not less than $ 50. Manufacturers of home appliances is not used to paying substantial sums for additional functionality that facilitates the use of their products.

At this time the attention of the computer industry captures the idea of ​​interactive television, a feeling that is it will be the next revolutionary breakthrough. So when in March 1993, Time Warner announced a contest for manufacturers of computer consoles to a TV network for the deployment of a test of interactive television, FirstPerson completely switches to the task. Again, failure - the winner is James Clark (James Clark), founder of Silicon Graphics Inc., Despite the fact that a technologically inferior to his proposal OaK. However, one year project Time Warner and SGI fail, and James Clark creates a company Netscape, which still play an important role in the success of Java.

Another potential client was a manufacturer of game console 3DO. It took only 10 days to import OaK on this platform, but after three months of negotiations, the director 3DO demanded full rights for the new product, and the deal never took place.

Finally, in early 1994, it became clear that the idea of ​​interactive TV proved to be unviable. Expectations were not destined to become a reality. Analysis of the state FirstPerson revealed that the company has no single customer or partner, and its future prospects rather vague. Sun Guidelines requires the immediate preparation of a new business plan, allowing the company profitable again.

Tuesday, August 30, 2011

Project Green.

December 5, 1990, the day when Naughton had to go to the company NeXT, Sun has made him a counter offer. Management agreed with all of its terms. The objective - "to create something extraordinary." February 1, 1991, Patrick Naughton, James Goslingand Mike Sheridan (Mike Sheridan) started to close the project, called Green.

Goal they have chosen themselves ambitious - to find out what will be the next wave ofcomputer industry (considered to be the first appearance of semiconductors andpersonal computers) and what products should be developed for successful participation. From the very beginning the project was not considered as pureresearch, the challenge was to create a real product, device.

At the annual meeting of the Sun in the spring of 1991 Gosling noted that the computer chips have an unusual distribution, they are used in video recorders, toasters,doorknobs, even in hotels! However, until now in every house you can see up to threeremote controls - for TV, VCR and music center. Thus was born the idea to develop a small device with an LCD touch screen, which will interact with the user through animation showing what can be managed and how. To create such a device, Naughton began work on a specialized graphics system, Gosling took up the software, and Sheridan took up business matters.

In April 1991, the team leaves the office Sun, being disconnected from your internal network even corporations, and moves into new premises. Purchased a variety ofconsumer electronics devices such as game consoles Nintendo, set-top boxes, remote controls, and developers are playing a different game all day, to betterunderstand how to make user interface easy to understand and use. As a perfect example, Gosling noted that the modern toaster with microprocessors have exactly the same interface as the toaster of his mother, who has served for 42 years.

First, Gosling attempted to modify C ++ to create a language for writing programs, the minimum-oriented platform. However, it soon became clear that it is virtually impossible. The main advantage of C ++ - program speed but not reliability. A reliable performance for normal users should be as absolutely guaranteed, as the compatibility of conventional electrical plugs and sockets. Therefore, in June 1991, Gosling, who wrote his first programming language in 14 years, begins to develop a replacement C ++. Creating a new catalog and wondering what to call him, he looked out the window and his gaze focused on the growing underneath the tree. So the language got its first name - OaK. A few years later, after conducting market research, the name was changed to Java.

The task was quite new, had nothing to lean on, had no experience, no prior developments. The team worked without interruption for a single day. In August 1991, held its first demonstration to Bill Joy and Scott McNealy. In November, the group again joined the network from a Sun dial-up line. The further developed the project, the more new professionals joined the team. Around that time, was coined name for the ideology that they created, - 1st Person (can be roughly translated as "first person").

Finally, September 4, 1992 Star7 was completed and demonstrated McNeely. It was a small device with a 5 "color (16 bit) touch-screen, without a single button. To turn it on, I had simply touch the screen. The interface was built as a cartoon - no menu! Duke moved from room to room painted houses, and to manage them, had simply drive across the screen with your finger - no special controls. You could take a virtual TV show with painted sofa, choose the gear and "drag" it to the image recorder to program it to record.

The result exceeded all expectations! It is worth mentioning that devices such as handheld computers (PDA), beginning with Newton, appeared much later, not to mention a color screen. It was a time 286i and 386i CPU Intel (486i already appeared, but were very expensive) and MS DOS, even the mouse has not been a mandatory attribute of a personal computer.

Leaders of Sun Microsystems were just delighted - appeared a great weapon against such powerful competitors such as HP, IBM and Microsoft.

Monday, August 29, 2011

What is Java? History of the Java. Part 2.

If you look at history of creation Java, it turns out that the original language was calledOaK, and work for its establishment began in 1990 with a rather controversial historywithin the corporation Sun. These facts are true, but actually it was more interesting.

Difficulties in Sun Microsystems

Indeed, the events begin to unfold in December 1990, when the rapid development ofWWW (World Wide Web - "World Wide Web"), yet no one could even predict. Then the computer industry was taken over by taking off personal computers. Unfortunately, the company Sun Microsystems, which occupies a significant market share and high-performance servers, stations, according to many employees and independentexperts, could offer nothing of interest to ordinary "PC users" - for their computers from Sun's "too complicated, very ugly and too "dumb" devices. "

Therefore, Scott McNealy, a member of the Board of Directors, President and CEO (chief executive) Corporation Sun, was not surprised when 25-year-old well-established developer Patrick Naughton, having worked for only 3 years old, announced his desire to go to the company NeXT. They were friends, and Patrick explained his decision simply and briefly: "They do everything right." Scott thought for a moment and uttered the historic phrase. He asked Patrick before going to describe what, in his opinion, the Sun is wrong. We had not just talk about the problem, but offer a solution without looking at the existing rules and tradition, as if at his disposal unlimited resources and opportunities.

Patrick Naughton complied with the request. He relentlessly criticized the new software architecture NeWS, over which the firm was working at the time, but also praised the newly announced OS NeXTstep. Naughton suggested involving professional artists, designers, user interfaces to make Sun more attractive, choose one tool of development and focus on one technology, rather than several at once (Naughton was forced to support hundreds of different combinations of technologies, platforms and interfaces used in the company) and finally, to dismiss almost all employees of the Window Systems Group (if you do the above conditions, they will simply not needed.)

Of course, Naughton was certain that his letter be ignored, but still delayed his transfer to NeXT waiting for some response. However, it has surpassed all expectations.

McNeely Naughton sent a letter to all the officers the corporation, and they sent it to their senior staff. Responded to just about anything, and, reputedly, Naughton described what they thought but were afraid to express. Decisive support was Bill Joy (Bill Joy) and James Gosling (James Gosling). Bill Joy - co-founder and vice president of Sun, as well as a project participant to create the UNIX operating system at UC Berkeley. James Gosling came to Sun in 1984 (before that he worked in a research lab IBM) and has been a leading developer and author of the first implementation of the text editor EMACS on C. These men had great authority in the corporation.

In order not to stop there, Naughton decided to offer a completely new project. He teamed up with a group of technical experts, and they stayed until 4:30 in the morning, discussing the basic concepts of such a project. They got only three: the main thing - the consumer, and everything is built entirely in accordance with its interests, a small team to design a small hardware and software platform, the platform needed to bring in a device designed for personal use, convenient and simple to use - ie . a computer for ordinary people. These ideas were enough to John Gage (John Gage), Head of Research Sun, was able to arrange a presentation to senior management of the corporation. Naughton presented the conditions that it considers necessary for the successful development of this enterprise: the team must sit out of the office Sun, so do not feel any resistance revolutionary ideas, the project will be the secret to all but senior management Sun; hardware and software platform may be incompatible with Sun products , for the first year the group needed a million dollars.

Sunday, August 28, 2011

What is Java? History of the Java. Part 1.

Java is widely recognized as the latest object-oriented language, easy to learn and allows you to create programs that can run on any platform without any modification(cross platform). Even with Java for some reason is always connected theme coffee(images logos, product names, etc.). Programmers can add to this description, that language is similar to a simplified C or C + + with the addition of garbage collector - Automatic garbage "Collector" (the mechanism of free memory that is no longer used by the program). We also know that Java is focused on the Internet, and its most common applications - little programs, applets that run in the browser and are part of HTML-pages.

Saturday, August 27, 2011

The beginning!

I want to start programming for the android. But first, I need to start with the programming language Java. Starting from tomorrow I will start to learn Java. I will publish my progress on this blog and if possible I will answer your questions or give you any advice. Also you can follow me at twitter. @WayofJava
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